Obesidade e edulcorantes: uma questão de saúde pública

Authors

  • Naienne da Silva Santana
  • Larissa Morais Viana
  • Cheila Gonçalves Mothé
  • Michelle Gonçalves Mothé

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.55905/oelv22n2-212

Keywords:

obesidade, edulcorantes, açúcar, saúde pública

Abstract

Nas últimas décadas, a obesidade e o excesso de peso alcançaram proporções epidêmicas no mundo, representando um dos maiores problemas de saúde pública da humanidade. No período de 1975 a 2020, a obesidade mundial triplicou. A Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) define obesidade como “acúmulo anormal ou excessivo de gordura que pode prejudicar a saúde”. A obesidade surge como resultado de um desequilíbrio energético entre as calorias consumidas e as calorias gastas, criando um excedente de energia e um estado de balanço energético positivo, que se persistente durante um período de tempo prolongado ocasiona o excesso de peso corporal (World Health Organization, 2021). O excesso de peso e a obesidade já foram considerados como uma problemática de países de alta renda e atualmente estão em ascensão nos países de baixa e média renda, particularmente nas áreas urbanas. As mudanças nos padrões de nutrição (maior disponibilidade de alimentos densos em calorias e pobres em nutrientes), crescimento econômico, industrialização, transporte mecanizado e urbanização são alguns dos fatores que têm contribuído para esta mudança de cenário (Basu et al., 2013; Hruby & Hu, 2015). Além de fatores ambientais e socioeconômicos, a literatura aponta que fatores hereditários tais como genética, histórico familiar, diferenças raciais/étnicas, também influenciam no risco de obesidade (Hruby & Hu, 2015). Considerada uma doença crônica de caráter multifatorial, a obesidade é um fator de risco para a ocorrência de doenças cardiovasculares, diabetes mellitus tipo II, distúrbios músculo-esqueléticos (principalmente osteoartrite), hipertensão, alguns tipos de câncer, entre outras enfermidades. Isolada ou associada a condições crônicas, a obesidade se tornou um problema de saúde pública no mundo, resultando em elevados custos diretos e indiretos associados as suas consequências físicas, psíquicas, sociais e econômicas (Dee et al., 2014; Hruby & Hu, 2015; OECD, 2019; Tremmel et al., 2017).

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Published

2024-02-26

How to Cite

Santana, N. da S., Viana, L. M., Mothé, C. G., & Mothé, M. G. (2024). Obesidade e edulcorantes: uma questão de saúde pública. OBSERVATÓRIO DE LA ECONOMÍA LATINOAMERICANA, 22(2), e3466. https://doi.org/10.55905/oelv22n2-212

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