Volatile organic components as Covid-19 biomarkers: a systematic review


  • Lucas Vinnicio de Araújo Santana
  • Marcelo Weinstein Teixeira
  • Mariza Brandão Palma
  • Anísio Francisco Soares




systematic review, Covid-19 pandemics, volatile organic compounds, trained dogs, health approach


In March 2020, the WHO declared the novel Coronavirus pandemic with 118,000 cases, 4.2 thousand deaths, and 114 affected countries. Amidst the absence of effective treatments and vaccines, scientists focused on diagnosing and preventing transmission. Pathogenic agent infections induce cellular behavior changes, crucial for developing diagnostic techniques. A systematic review, following PRISMA guidelines, investigated COVID-19 and volatile organic compound (VOC) biomarkers. From 35 selected articles, two main VOC detection approaches emerged: trained dogs and chemical-analytical tools with artificial intelligence. VOC detection proved comparable to the gold standard PCR test for COVID-19 diagnosis. While not a replacement, VOC detection complements PCR testing, offering a unique health approach. Overall, the review highlights the efficacy of VOC detection, especially in areas with limited PCR access. However, these techniques should supplement other preventive measures like mask-wearing, social distancing, and hand hygiene.


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How to Cite

Santana, L. V. de A., Teixeira, M. W., Palma, M. B., & Soares, A. F. (2024). Volatile organic components as Covid-19 biomarkers: a systematic review. OBSERVATÓRIO DE LA ECONOMÍA LATINOAMERICANA, 22(2), e3158. https://doi.org/10.55905/oelv22n2-061