Double W/O/W emulsion is effective for carrying calcium and vitamin D


  • Marina Carvalho Martins Madalão
  • Andréa Alves Simiqueli
  • Pedro Rodrigues Minim
  • Ana Alice da Silva Xavier Costa
  • Luis Antonio Minim
  • Valéria Paula Rodrigues Minim



double emulsion, nutrients, kinetic stability


A double emulsion is a promising system to facilitate the fortification process of nutrients such as calcium and vitamin D, as it protects vitamin D from oxidation and calcium from interactions with food proteins. The aim of this work was to produce Wi/O/We type double emulsions carrying vitamin D and calcium. The influence of the proportion of aqueous phase Wi/We (10/60, 15/55 and 20/70) and the concentration of polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) emulsifier (2.0, 2.5 and 3.0% w/w) on the kinetic stability of the emulsions over 13 days of storage was evaluated. For this, the following were analyzed: zeta potential, rheological properties (flow curve and viscoelasticity), entrapment efficiency (EE), and kinetic stability (KS) of calcium localization, microstructure, and macroscopic stability of the W/O/W emulsions, as well as the interfacial tension of the primary emulsions (Wi/O). The highest EE and KS of calcium localization were observed in treatments with smaller proportions of internal aqueous phase, regardless of the PGPR concentration. Therefore, an aqueous phase proportion of 10/60 combined with 2% PGPR is recommended.


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How to Cite

Madalão, M. C. M., Simiqueli, A. A., Minim, P. R., Costa, A. A. da S. X., Minim, L. A., & Minim, V. P. R. (2024). Double W/O/W emulsion is effective for carrying calcium and vitamin D. OBSERVATÓRIO DE LA ECONOMÍA LATINOAMERICANA, 22(1), 3752–3771.




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