Antioxidant potential of L-asparaginase and L-glutaminase excreted by Monascus sp.


  • Sarah Signe do Nascimento
  • Maria Luiza Sousa Silva
  • Renan do Nascimento Barbosa
  • Cristina Maria de Souza-Motta
  • Leonor Alves de Oliveira da Silva
  • Neiva Tinti de Oliveira



agroindustrial waste, antioxidants, extracellular production, L-asparaginase, L-glutaminase


The L-asparaginases and L-glutaminases can be excreted by various organisms such as bacteria and fungi, but also by animal and plant tissues. Studies indicate that these enzymes can be used in the food industry to improve the flavor of foods and in pharmaceuticals as an ally in the treatment of some types of cancer. This article aimed to select a fungal strain that produces these amidohydrolases, investigate the potential production of said enzyme by submerged fermentation and whether the partially purified enzyme has biological activities. Initially, 19 fungal strains were selected by Submerged Fermentation in modified Czapek's Dox medium. The best extracellular enzyme producer, Monascus sp., was tested in Solid State Fermentation and Supplemented Submerged Fermentation, and enzymes extracted both extracellularly and intracellularly. The best yield of Monascus sp. was in Submerged Fermentation supplemented with glutamine (1% v/v), glucose (1% v/v) and meat extract (1% v/v), at pH 7.0 at 30 °C for 72h. Partial purification of the crude extract by ion exchange chromatography (DEAE SP) resulted in 19 fractions that were evaluated for their ability to hydrolyze glutamine and asparagine as substrate. The determination of the antioxidant activity was carried out, which presented an IC50 of 11.83 mg/mL by the DPPH method and 2.87 mg/mL by the ABTS method. In that study it was observed that Monascus sp. was able to excrete these amidohydrolases with affinities to hydrolyze glutamine and asparagine. Despite presenting good antioxidant activity, more studies must be carried out to determine its biotechnological potential.


AL-HAZMI, N. E.; NAGUIB, D. M. Plant asparaginase versus microbial asparaginase as anticancer agent. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 29, n. 18, 2022.

BADOEI-DALFARD, A.; KARAMI, Z.; RAVAN, H. Purification and characterization of a thermo- and organic solvent-tolerant alkaline protease from Bacillus sp. JER02. Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology, v. 45, n. 2, 2015.

BARZKAR, N. et al. Marine microbial L-glutaminase: from pharmaceutical to food industry. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2021.

BRADFORD, M. M. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry, v. 72, n. 1–2, p. 248–254, maio 1976.

CHEN, Y.; WANG, B.; PAN, L. Recombinant Expression of Glutaminase from Aspergillus oryzae in Aspergillus niger and Its Enzymatic Properties. Modern Food Science and Technology, v. 38, n. 9, 2022.

COOPER, E. L.; MA, M. J. Alzheimer Disease: Clues from traditional and complementary medicine. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, 2017.

DIAS, F. F. G. et al. Purification, characterization and antiproliferative activity of L-asparaginase from Aspergillus oryzae CCT 3940 with no glutaminase activity. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, v. 6, n. 9, 2016.

DURTHI, C. P. et al. Versatile and Valuable Utilization of Amidohydrolase L-glutaminase in Pharma and Food industries: A Review. Current Drug Metabolism, v. 21, n. 1, 2020.

DUTTA, S.; GHOSH, S.; PRAMANIK, S. L-asparaginase and L-glutaminase from Aspergillus fumigatus WL002: Production and some physicochemical properties. Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, v. 51, n. 4, 2015.

EL-GENDY, M. M. A. A. et al. Production, purification, characterization, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of extracellular L-asparaginase produced by Fusarium equiseti AHMF4. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, v. 28, n. 4, 2021.

EL-GENDY, M. M. A. A.; AL-ZAHRANI, S. H. M.; EL-BONDKLY, A. M. A. Construction of Potent Recombinant Strain Through Intergeneric Protoplast Fusion in Endophytic Fungi for Anticancerous Enzymes Production Using Rice Straw. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, v. 183, n. 1, 2017.


FERREIRA, F. V. et al. Characteristics of a Cold-Adapted L-glutaminase with Potential Applications in the Food Industry. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, v. 193, n. 10, 2021.

GARCIA, P. H. D. et al. Anticancer Asparaginases: Perspectives in Using Filamentous Fungi as Cell Factories. Catalysts, 2023.

GAZI, S. et al. Effectiveness of asparaginase on reducing acrylamide formation in bakery products according to their dough type and properties. Food Chemistry, v. 402, 2023.

GULATI, R.; SAXENA, R. K.; GUPTA, R. A rapid plate assay for screening l ‐asparaginase producing micro‐organisms. Letters in Applied Microbiology, v. 24, n. 1, p. 23–26, 31 jan. 1997.

IMADA, A. et al. Asparaginase and Glutaminase Activities of Micro-organisms. Journal of General Microbiology, v. 76, n. 1, p. 85–99, 1 maio 1973.

KASHYAP, P. et al. Extra-cellular l-glutaminase production by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii under solid-state fermentation. Process Biochemistry, v. 38, n. 3, p. 307–312, 1 nov. 2002.

LAEMMLI, U. K. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature, v. 227, n. 5259, 1970.

LASSALETTA, Á.; GUTIÉRREZ, F. Asparaginase activity monitoring in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A cross-sectional nationwide study in Spain. Cancer Reports, v. 6, n. 2, 2023.

LOUCIF, H. et al. Autophagy-dependent glutaminolysis drives superior IL21 production in HIV-1-specific CD4 T cells. Autophagy, p. 1–18, 6 out. 2021.

MASISI, B. K. et al. The role of glutaminase in cancer. Histopathology, v. 76, n. 4, p. 498–508, 18 mar. 2020.

MAXSON & MITCHELL et al. 乳鼠心肌提取 HHS Public Access. Physiology & behavior, v. 176, n. 1, p. 139–148, 2017.

MOKRANI, A.; MADANI, K. Effect of solvent, time and temperature on the extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of peach (Prunus persica L.) fruit. Separation and Purification Technology, v. 162, 2016.

ORABI, H. M. et al. L-Asparaginase and L-glutaminase: Sources, production, and applications in medicine and industry. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences, n. 2, 2019.

ROCHA, W. R. V. et al. Screening and optimizing fermentation production of l ‐asparaginase by Aspergillus terreus strain S‐18 isolated from the Brazilian Caatinga Biome. Journal of Applied Microbiology, v. 126, n. 5, p. 1426–1437, 19 maio 2019.

S MORE, S. Isolation, Purification and Characterization of Fungal Extracellular L-Asparaginase from Mucor hiemalis. Journal of Biocatalysis & Biotransformation, v. 02, n. 02, 2013.

SAEED, H. et al. Molecular cloning, structural modeling and production of recombinant Aspergillus terreus l. asparaginase in Escherichia coli. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, v. 106, p. 1041–1051, jan. 2018.

SÁNCHEZ-GONZÁLEZ, I.; JIMÉNEZ-ESCRIG, A.; SAURA-CALIXTO, F. In vitro antioxidant activity of coffees brewed using different procedures (Italian, espresso and filter). Food Chemistry, v. 90, n. 1–2, 2005.

SARKAR, A. et al. In vitro Antioxidant activity of extracellular L-glutaminase enzyme isolated from marine yeast Rhodotorula sp. DAMB1 . Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, v. 13, n. 1, 2020.

SHARMA, D.; MISHRA, A. L-asparaginase production in solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus niger: process modeling by artificial neural network approach. Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 2021.

SHUAI, Y. et al. An efficient method for the high-yield production of L-theanine using a newly isolated glutaminase-producing organism. Food Bioscience, v. 28, 2019.

UPADHYAYA, S. et al. Microbial Protein: A Valuable Component for Future Food Security. Microbes and Environmental Management, n. January, 2016.

WANG, Y. et al. Microbial production, molecular modification, and practical application of l-Asparaginase: A review. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, v. 186, set. 2021.

YAFETTO, L. Application of solid-state fermentation by microbial biotechnology for bioprocessing of agro-industrial wastes from 1970 to 2020: A review and bibliometric analysis. Heliyon, v. 8, n. 3, 2022.




How to Cite

do Nascimento, S. S., Silva, M. L. S., Barbosa, R. do N., de Souza-Motta, C. M., da Silva, L. A. de O., & de Oliveira, N. T. (2023). Antioxidant potential of L-asparaginase and L-glutaminase excreted by Monascus sp. OBSERVATÓRIO DE LA ECONOMÍA LATINOAMERICANA, 21(9), 10483–10500.




Most read articles by the same author(s)